L’energia è strategica: approvati i decreti Golden Power

Sono stati pubblicati nella GU del 6 giugno i DPR 85 e 86 sui golden power, ossia  i poteri speciali che spettano al Governo sugli assetti societari dei soggetti che operano nei settori della difesa e della sicurezza nazionale, nonché nei settori dell’energia, dei trasporti e delle comunicazioni.

Si alza la testa o si dà veste ufficiale alla sudditanza nei confronti delle multinazionali? ahhhh, saperlo…

Annunci

Gli sconti per le aziende energivore

Con la deliberazione 340/2013/R/EEL l’Autorità per l’Energia elettrica e il Gas ha fissato nel 1 luglio la data di entrata in vigore dei nuovi sconti in bolletta per i grandi clienti energivori. Voluto dal ministro Passera, lo sconto costerà allo stato italiano 600 milioni di euro.

La delibera dell’AEEG, emanata ieri, prevede di stabilireall’1 luglio 2013 la decorrenza degli effetti economici delle  agevolazioni per le imprese a forte consumo di energia, di cui all’articolo 39, del decreto legge 83/12 , cioè il decreto Sviluppo del Governo Monti, al quale è seguito il regolamento attuativo del 26 aprile.

Per essere energivori si devono consumare più di 2,4GWh annui di energia elettrica o di altra fonte. Lo status si acquisisce o si perde sulla base dell’anno solare, e per ora darà luogo solamente all’iscrizione in un registro, consultabile, di prossima stesura.

Tra questi energivori, il sottoinsieme di coloro (società, non siti produttivi) che risultano iscritti con determinati codici ATECO (per esempio fuori grande distribuzione e telecomunicazioni, a causa delle minori sofferenze di questi settori rispetto al manifatturiero) che consumano più di 2,4GWh di sola energia elettrica, e che contemporaneamente spendono per energia e prodotti energetici vari più del 3% del fatturato, ha diritto ad accedere ad una quota variabile di rimborso di alcune addizionali in bolletta (tutte meno due) sulla base dell’appartenenza a ben precisi scaglioni di rapporto costi/fatturato (dati certi, dell’anno precedente, come da fatture acquisti e bilancio approvato).

Si assiste già ad una serie di manovre dei grandi gruppi, che sposteranno le società ricomponendole in soggetti ad alto rapporto energia/fatturato, destinate ad inoltrare le domande in posizione di forza, e società a bassa intensità energetica, dove verranno posteggiati i processi non incentivabili.

La prima e più grave bomba ad orologeria è l’impossibilità di prevedere i costi di sostentamento di un tale sistema da parte del nostro GSE, che non è stato capace neanche di prevedere il trend degli oneri per l’incentivo a fotovoltaico ed eolico, che richiedeva di effettuare addirittura una moltiplicazione al mese, e che quindi solo a posteriori può accorgersi delle manovre operate da grandi gruppi internazionali dotati della massima capacità di adattamento e sfruttamento delle pieghe normative.

Sul tamburo: le nuove schede TEE 37 e 38

Scheda tecnica n. 37E – Nuova installazione di impianto di riscaldamento unifamiliare alimentato a biomassa
legnosa di potenza ” 35 kW termici. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Allegato alla scheda tecnica n. 37E: procedura per il calcolo del risparmio di energia primaria ……………………….

Scheda tecnica n. 38E – Installazione di sistema di automazione e controllo del riscaldamento negli edifici
residenziali (Building Automation and Control System, BACS) secondo la norma UNI EN 15232 ………………….
Allegato alla scheda tecnica n. 38E: procedura per il calcolo del risparmio di energia primaria …………………………

Coinvolgere il personale sull’energia

I don’t mean to put too fine a point on it, but most people leading energy management programs drill down on the technical aspects and ignore the substantial gains to be had on the “softer,” people side. The New York Times ran a good article about how the Obama campaign won the election.There were some good tips on how to engage people that will help in your energy management effort. Here are six things I took away. But you should read it yourself here.

1. Don’t Deny It, Counter It
If someone says, “It makes our work harder,” explain how it makes it easier or how it benefits everyone. If it doesn’t, you shouldn’t be doing it anyway.

2. Get Them to Literally Sign On
A simple voluntary commitment tends to be more persistent if people actually sign something. Meet people one-on-one and ask them to sign an energy awareness pledge card.

3. Reward Their Constancy
A simple statement appreciating past contributions goes a long way to making sure that a person’s contribution continues. An opening like, “You’ve really helped us in the past,” shows people you recognize their efforts and it makes them more inclined to continue.

4. Make It A Plan
People who want to help sometimes end up not helping because they don’t quite know what to do next. So when you speak with them, make a little plan with them before parting ways. “So what do you think you can do?” Is a good way to make that step. Or, “Can I count on you to keep an eye on that door and make sure it’s closed?” People with plans are much more likely to join your effort.

5. Make It a Group
Don’t be afraid to mention things that other people are doing. People feel more comfortable and excited when they realize they are part of a group effort.

6. Make It Genuine
Finally, you need to be genuine in your outreach efforts. If you feel at all uncomfortable, it’s probably best not to reach out that way. But people respond to authenticity and sincerity. If you’re doing this work, it’s probably because you have some passion for it. If in doubt, show your passion. People will respond.

Il nuovo standard formativo per l’installazione e la manutenzione di impianti FER

La Conferenza delle Regioni e delle Province autonome, nella seduta del 24 gennaio, ha approvato un documento sullo standard formativo per l’attività di installazione e manutenzione straordinaria di impianti energetici alimentati da fonti rinnovabili. Saranno adesso le Regioni a fornire le indicazioni operative per predisporre le conseguenti offerte formative.

Parte quindi il cosidetto “patentino delle rinnovabili” che sarà strutturato in un modulo di base e 4 moduli di specilizzazione:

– impianti a biomasse

– pompe di calore

– solare termico

– solare fotovoltaico

Interesserà installatori e manutentori di impienti per la produzione di energia da fonti rinnovabili.

A Beautiful Mind – on the Pareto Efficiency Frontier (post di James Ferguson)

So I will not apologize for the wonderful title of this post, because it really does represent the exact issues I want to discuss today in terms of energy efficiency. Rather, I apologize, because this post is really written for the exploring engineer, not for the spoon-fed. It will be complex and I may ask questions. But I will provide enough layman’s background that anyone bright and persistent enough can understand.

We will touch on the simplest ideas of energy efficiency, and mix in aspects of Nash’s work in game theory for optimization of winning strategies. This is The Nash Equilibrium – the brilliant outcome of thestar mathematician and man who struggled and learned to manage paranoid schizophrenia portrayed in the wonderful film A Beautiful Mind

Portrait of Vilfredo Pareto.
Portrait of Vilfredo Pareto. (Photo credit:Wikipedia)

All-in-all we will argue about whether energy efficiency has been argued about enough, and we will also look at the Pareto Frontier (in layman’s terms).

We will see that the way buildings control systems are operated to day are generally sub-optimal because we do not even consider everyday economic or game strategy theories to our objectives.

We are guilty, because we let the big players in our industry get away with giving; not second best but provably sub-optimal worsts!

I dare say, some of these ideas may be new to you – as they are to me, so when I have them wrong please, please do comment and correct my thinking (in the comments section below rather than on linkedInbecause otherwise only some readers see them). Better still think and contribute and enrich the discussion, because its written for us all…

Where do we start? At the beginnings of Game Theory.

Let’s imagine that an simple air handling unit supply (AHU) is a battleground between two gaming warriors. Lets introduce them:

Henry (the Heater)
Henry cares primarily that fresh air is delivered at least warm enough for comfort – lets say 15 C (59F)
(Note to laymen air warms up because of unintended sources so a supply below comfort temperature is normal)
When he has been in error he seeks to correct the total sum of his historical errors to zero.
Given that achievement he seeks to use as little heat as possible.

Charles (the Chiller)
Charles cares primarily that fresh air is delivered at least warm  cool enough for comfort – lets say 15.5 C (59.9 F)
When he has been in error he seeks to correct the total sum of his historical errors to zero.
Given that achievement he seeks to use as little cooling as possible.

There is a third character Henrietta – She is an energy manager, and she applies common sense. More of  Henrietta later.

The more aware of readers will realize that Henry and Charles sound as though they been set up according to normal convention with PID loops for control and they have probably been set up for a fight !

http://www.me.umn.edu/labs/teel/110Research12Stanley.htm

Above we see a standard set up according to the Thermal Environmental Engineering Laboratory – And YES its wrong despite the research being funded by the Department of Homeland Security (LOL) To see an AHU that is set up well see here 

The BIGGEST difference is that the good one has a temperature sensor immediately after the heating coil and the rubbish one does not.

In my experience cost cutting measures eliminate this very cheap, very essential sensor in around 95% of implementations including some by the biggest players in the AHU supply market (over 1.5 Billion Euros in Europe alone).

Why is this sooooo stupid ?

Technically (and I accept the jargon is not too important – but I want some keywords to get some engineers thinking about this) –

The first can stabilize at many Nash Equilibria that do not lie on the Pareto Efficiency Frontier.

In English (or engineering) ?

When the PID loops controlling each coil (or  register or heat exchanger) achieves its fundamental objective of comfort (that is Henry and Charles are basically happy) both H and C are active under the majority of cases.

So simplistically if air is coming in at 10C Henrietta would like to hold Henry back to delivering air at 15C and stop Charles doing anything at all.  But if Henry does say 75% output and Charles does 25% output there is still heating on balance so H and C are happy but Henrietta is not.

Henry and Charles are happy because they have found a Nash Equilibrium. They achieve their objectives, but knowing the others strategy does not allow them to change their position of being in conflict.

This is referred to in the wiki article above which states:

“The Nash equilibrium may sometimes appear non-rational in a third-person perspective. This is because it may happen that a Nash equilibrium is not Pareto optimal.

The Nash equilibrium may also have non-rational consequences in sequential games because players may “threaten” each other with non-rational moves”.
Henrietta cries foul ! She sees that if Henry would back off, Charles could too, or if Charles would back off Henry would too.  But Henry and Charles have a job to do and cannot budge an inch.
Henrietta realizes if she forced the implementation of the temperature sensor downstream from Henry that is upstream from Charles, Henry would play his own game and ignore Charles’ strategy.
The very fact that Henry does not know Charles means that he optimises for heating at no error between coils.  This means that Henry never calls on Charles to cool.
Now for the cost of a few cents or euros a new sensor prevents Nash Equilibria that are not simultaneously on the Pareto Efficiency Frontier :
“Pareto efficiency, or Pareto optimality, is a concept in economics with applications in engineering. The term is named after Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923), an Italian economist who used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and income distribution[citation needed]. In a Pareto efficient economic allocation, no one can be made better off without making at least one individual worse off. Given an initial allocation of goods among a set of individuals, a change to a different allocation that makes at least one individual better off without making any other individual worse off is called a Pareto improvement. An allocation is defined as “Pareto efficient” or “Pareto optimal” when no further Pareto improvements can be made.”
“The notion of Pareto efficiency is also useful in engineering. Given a set of choices and a way of valuing them, the Pareto frontier or Pareto set or Pareto front is the set of choices that are Pareto efficient. By restricting attention to the set of choices that are Pareto-efficient, a designer can make tradeoffs within this set, rather than considering the full range of every parameter”  (from wiki)
And it just so happens that Nash Equilibra on the Pareto Efficiency Frontier in this very common case are Strong Pareto Optima, in all cases where in the other cases Nash Equilibria are not Pareto efficient.
Simply stated this means that taking the sensor out costs you in almost all circumstances !
FACT it is the single greatest source of comfort heat-fighting chilling globally  – and it seems nobody gives a damn.
Now Henrietta has a friend who is an idiot – his name is Wasteful Walther.
Walther says – “we don’t need the sensor – because we prevent simultaneous heating and chilling by inhibiting valve positions being both open.”
Idiotic! – because heating happens from a hot heat exchanger AFTER you close it, and the time delay changes with load.
Walther also says – “we control with PID loops which achieve zero error over time”.
Well Walther a PID loop requires a linear response to do that without transient instability and there is not one here – it also requires a decoupled proportional signal of the error caused by the output driven – also not available here.
So we should be good Henrietta’s, save time and energy and get a sensor after (but far enough from) each controlled action and use it as a source of feedback.
The beauty of a Nash Equilibrium on the Pareto Efficiency Frontier is that it is cheap achievable and you KNOW it makes sense !

ISO 50001: le risorse web del US department of energy

L’US Department of energy ha messo online una pagina molto interessante sulle opportunità portate dallo standard ISO 50001 alle aziende:

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/energymanagement/

Tra le altre si segnala la DoE eGuide for ISO 50001, con i suoi 7 passi per l’ìmplementazione di un Ems:

https://save-energy-now.org/EM/SPM/Pages/Home.aspx