Pillole di efficienza – gli indicatori finanziari parte 2

Continua la serie Pillole di Efficienza, la serie di video offerta da ECIPA ESCo. Oggi parliamo di indicatori finanziari.

Annunci

Pillole di efficienza – UNI 11352 parte 2

Continua la serie di Pillole di efficienza, la serie di video offerta da ECIPA ESCo e dedicata all’efficienza energetica. Oggi parliamo della norma italiana di certificazione delle ESCo, la UNI 11352:2014.

Kick Off Your Energy Management Program

When you walk into a big industrial plant, it is easy to be overwhelmed by the question “where on earth is all the energy going?” When I was a young engineer, I certainly was overwhelmed and I spent a lot of time doing detailed work on unimportant things. With most things in lifethe 80/20 rule is true and it is true for energy usage as well.

If you are adopting a systematic approach to energy management, you need to know:

  1. how much energy you buy in (your energy sources) and
  2. what is your end-use of that energy, and in particular, your significant energy uses (SEUs)

When you know the end uses of your energy in industrial processes or in buildings, you are in a position to make very dramatic energy reductions – instead of tinkering around in the utilities building.

In an ideal world:

  • you would like to plot your Sankey (energy flow) diagram
  • then identify your biggest energy saving opportunities by focusing on the significant energy uses

For example:

  1. In a breakfast cereal plant, we found that 70% of all of the energy was used in the drying of finished cereal. This made us focus on energy saving opportunities around the recovery of heat and latent heat from the dryer exhaust.
  2. In a high-end pharmaceutical manufacturing plant, we found that 80% of all of the end-use energy was used for climate control of clean rooms. This caused us to focus on HVAC, scheduling of clean room operation and re-examining regulatory requirements.
  3. In a university, we found that energy use was very widely fragmented and that most energy use was under the control of staff in local departments. This caused us to focus the energy management program around training and communication activities for employees and students.
  4. In a supermarket chain, we found that only 2% of energy was used for lighting of outdoor car parks. Before this analysis, some supermarkets had been investing time and effort on energy reduction in car park lighting because customers had complained about apparent energy wastage. After the analysis, the supermarkets re-focused on the bigger energy uses such as refrigeration, chilled displays and interior lighting.

When it comes to figuring out your end-use energy, the two common approaches are:

  • Calculation – by energy specialists using the equipment power ratings, operating schedules, advanced calculation techniques, sometimes including simulation
  • Metering – designing, tendering and substantially investing in automated metering systems

Both these approaches require a substantial investment of time and/or money – and this can delay your start on taking energy-saving actions.

The question is this: would you get better value for money by focusing on the most important energy uses from the start, rather than making an equal distribution of time and money across the entire plant?

If you are hiring energy analysis specialists, you could focus them on the biggest energy consumers.

Regarding metering, too many people “over- meter” too early and with the result that they have poorly designed and unbalanced metering systems – and they spend too much money on the wrong thing. For example, I very often see industrial plants that have hundreds of electrical meters and only one or two thermal meters – even though electrical /thermal energy use is split 50-50!

What is the value of guesstimation and visualization?

For different sectors within industry and buildings, there are research results available which will give a rough first estimate of the energy breakdown for your sector. So, why not search for results on the web and then apply the percentage breakdown to your site.

Or:

If you are in a very specialized industry, perhaps it is you who is the expert. Perhaps you have a rough idea yourself, from your experience.

Here is a Sankey diagram which shows all energy uses and clearly highlights significant energy uses (it also shows which of these are metered).

sankey diagram enerit

Now, can you visualize it? When you see your breakdown clearly, you can see what energy is “unaccounted” – i.e. you do not know where it is used! For example, I know of a manufacturing operation with long experience of making project-based energy-saving improvements. Only when they did a Sankey-style energy balance did they discover that 30% of their energy was being used in their water treatment plant at the back of their site (and “unaccounted”) – this demonstrates the importance of a top-down analysis of their energy use!

When you visualize, you can also decide which energy streams need extra metering and which ones just need an improved estimate – and depending on the size of the energy flow.

When you visualize, you can motivate your management by showing graphically key areas of energy cost reduction.

Bottom line: Yes – guesstimation will save you time and money. So, make your first guesstimate now, find a way to visualize it, and get focused on key areas for: saving energy now; improving your estimates; and investment in metering!

Paul F. Monaghan, Ph.D., is CEO of Enerit. Paul is a 30-year veteran of energy management throughout North America and Western Europe. As Enerit CEO, he is responsible for setting the strategic direction of Enerit energy software products. Enerit is a global leader in delivery of innovative systematic energy management system (EnMS) software to support Energy Star, ISO 50001, SEP and all EnMS based on the ISO 50001 approach. Enerit EnMS software is complementary to and integrates with monitoring and energy reporting software. Enerit software includes dynamic Sankey diagrams to make it easier to get started with a systematic EnMS approach.

Gli sconti per le aziende energivore

Con la deliberazione 340/2013/R/EEL l’Autorità per l’Energia elettrica e il Gas ha fissato nel 1 luglio la data di entrata in vigore dei nuovi sconti in bolletta per i grandi clienti energivori. Voluto dal ministro Passera, lo sconto costerà allo stato italiano 600 milioni di euro.

La delibera dell’AEEG, emanata ieri, prevede di stabilireall’1 luglio 2013 la decorrenza degli effetti economici delle  agevolazioni per le imprese a forte consumo di energia, di cui all’articolo 39, del decreto legge 83/12 , cioè il decreto Sviluppo del Governo Monti, al quale è seguito il regolamento attuativo del 26 aprile.

Per essere energivori si devono consumare più di 2,4GWh annui di energia elettrica o di altra fonte. Lo status si acquisisce o si perde sulla base dell’anno solare, e per ora darà luogo solamente all’iscrizione in un registro, consultabile, di prossima stesura.

Tra questi energivori, il sottoinsieme di coloro (società, non siti produttivi) che risultano iscritti con determinati codici ATECO (per esempio fuori grande distribuzione e telecomunicazioni, a causa delle minori sofferenze di questi settori rispetto al manifatturiero) che consumano più di 2,4GWh di sola energia elettrica, e che contemporaneamente spendono per energia e prodotti energetici vari più del 3% del fatturato, ha diritto ad accedere ad una quota variabile di rimborso di alcune addizionali in bolletta (tutte meno due) sulla base dell’appartenenza a ben precisi scaglioni di rapporto costi/fatturato (dati certi, dell’anno precedente, come da fatture acquisti e bilancio approvato).

Si assiste già ad una serie di manovre dei grandi gruppi, che sposteranno le società ricomponendole in soggetti ad alto rapporto energia/fatturato, destinate ad inoltrare le domande in posizione di forza, e società a bassa intensità energetica, dove verranno posteggiati i processi non incentivabili.

La prima e più grave bomba ad orologeria è l’impossibilità di prevedere i costi di sostentamento di un tale sistema da parte del nostro GSE, che non è stato capace neanche di prevedere il trend degli oneri per l’incentivo a fotovoltaico ed eolico, che richiedeva di effettuare addirittura una moltiplicazione al mese, e che quindi solo a posteriori può accorgersi delle manovre operate da grandi gruppi internazionali dotati della massima capacità di adattamento e sfruttamento delle pieghe normative.

Il grafico più importante

6Whenever I show up at a new client’s, the first thing they pass in front of me is their “Energy Profile,” or “Energy Report,” or (and this is the most accurate title) “Energy History.” These plots show some form of energy consumption over some time period, usually electricity and natural gas over the course of a year. This is a logical place to start, and you can acquire some real insights.

Take a look at the chart on the left here. (This is all fabricated data by the way.) This chart shows energy consumed through a typical week for an injection mold machine making plastic chairs. So what do we learn? Well, clearly something different happened on Friday. Maybe there was an early shut down, maybe operators were just paying less attention. Something seems to have been happening on Wednesday as well. These definitely call for some investigation. If nothing else, we’ll understand the weekly cycle better.

But, really, this chart doesn’t give us any sense of how our production rate drives our energy consumption. In ISO 50001 parlance, we would say that Time is NOT a Relevant Variable. Our energy consumption does not change because Time is passing! Our energy consumption changes because OTHER THINGS are changing. In this case, it is Production.

Take a look at the second chart. Oh my! Now we seem to be getting some useful information! We can see now, not only that energy consumption is proportional to Production, but we can see HOW it is related to Production. We can actually determine the mathematical relationship between the two. That means that given Production projections, we can compute Energy Consumption projections! Isn’t that a grand piece of information to pass to your CFO? You can also now deliver an estimate of marginal energy intensity per chair produced. Be careful now! You are making yourself profoundly useful to your top management!

Finally, you can identify a key insight for your own energy improvement efforts. This relationship tells you how much of your energy consumption is related to Production, and how much is Baseload. I’ve seen places where a simple analysis such as this revealed that the Baseload was over half of their monthly energy consumption! They had been working diligently on reducing energy consumption in their Production processes, but it turned out that the Baseload was the elephant in the room.

They asked me, “Why is it so much?” I said that I surely didn’t know, but that they had better find out.

(And if you’d like to see what this feels like from the elephant’s point of view, click here: https://twitter.com/PaulBirkeland/status/240609468910563328/photo/1)